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Almonds may affect inflammation markers

Almonds.jpg
Almond consumption was found to significantly reduce serum concentrations of CRP and IL-6, two primary inflammation markers.

Long-term inflammation has been associated with various diseases linked to mortality such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, and metabolic syndrome.1-5 Abnormal levels of inflammatory biomarkers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) as well as anti-inflammatory biomarkers exist in this condition.6

The current literature concerning the effects of almond consumption on inflammatory markers has conflicting results. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials published in Advances in Nutrition (DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmab158) investigated the effects of almond consumption on inflammatory markers to summarize the current research.

The researchers gathered information up until 22 March 2021 across databases including PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science without time or language restrictions. There were 18 eligible clinical trials reviewed for analysis which included 847 participants across several countries. These trials included a no-almond-intervention for comparison, had a 4-week minimum intervention period, and reported mean changes and standard deviation values (or equivalent) for inflammatory markers.

Results indicate that almond consumption significantly alleviates IL-6 and CRP concentrations. Subgroup analysis revealed these effects to be significant across non-obese as well as healthy individuals but was not significant in unhealthy or obese participants. Furthermore, daily doses exceeding 60 g of almonds resulted in no benefit to CRP. Additionally, no significant effect of almond consumption on TNF-α, ICAM-1, or VCAM-1 was found.

The researchers conclude that “given the results of studies regarding the effect of different nuts on inflammatory markers, daily intake of almond in a context of a healthy diet (i.e., DASH diet) could be recommended along with medications to attenuate inflammation. However, further studies are required to explore the particular effect of different nuts on inflammation status.”

 

1. Singh N, Baby D, Rajguru JP, Patil PB, Thakkannavar SS, Pujari VB. Inflammation and cancer. Annals of African medicine. 2019 Jul;18(3):121.

2. Golia E, Limongelli G, Natale F, Fimiani F, Maddaloni V, Pariggiano I, Bianchi R, Crisci M, D’Acierno L, Giordano R, Di Palma G. Inflammation and cardiovascular disease: from pathogenesis to therapeutic target. Current atherosclerosis reports. 2014 Sep 1;16(9):435.

3. Donath MY, Shoelson SE. Type 2 diabetes as an inflammatory disease. Nature reviews immunology. 2011 Feb;11(2):98-107.

4. Lee JK, Bettencourt R, Brenner D, Le TA, Barrett-Connor E, Loomba R. Association between serum interleukin-6 concentrations and mortality in older adults: the Rancho Bernardo study. PloS one. 2012 Apr 13;7(4):e34218.

5. Hotamisligil GS. Inflammation and metabolic disorders. Nature. 2006 Dec;444(7121):860-7.

6. Neale EP, Tapsell LC, Guan V, Batterham MJ. The effect of nut consumption on markers of inflammation and endothelial function: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ open. 2017 Nov 1;7(11):e016863.

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